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Alligators are large, meat-eating reptiles that spend a lot of their lives in the water. They mostly live in fresh to brackish water, in swamps, marshes, canals, and lakes. Alligators swim very well, mainly using their tails to propel themselves through the water, and also using their webbed feet.
Anatomy: There are two types of alligators, the American alligator and the Chinese alligator. The American alligator grows up to 19 feet (3.5 m) long, weighing up to 600 pounds (270 kg). The Chinese alligator grows to be about 6 feet long (1.8 m).
Diet and Teeth: Alligators are nocturnal and feed primarily at night. Adult gators eat fish, birds, turtles, reptiles, and mammals. They swallow their prey whole. The alligator’s conical teeth are used for catching the prey, but do not tear it apart. Alligators have about 80 teeth; when teeth are lost they regrow.
The bald eagle, Haliaeetus leucocephalus, is a magnificent bird of prey that is native to North America. This majestic eagle is not really bald; white feathers cover its head. The derivation of the name “bald” is from an obsolete English word meaning white. The bald eagle has been the national symbol of the USA since 1782.
Habitat: The bald eagle lives near rivers and large lakes, as it catches most of its food in the water.
Diet: Eagles are carnivores (meat-eaters) and hunt during the day (they are diurnal). They eat mostly fish. They also hunt and scavenge small mammals, snakes, and other birds.
Anatomy: Bald eagles have a long, downward-curving yellow bill, and large, keen eyes. These strong fliers have white feathers on their head, tail, and wing tips; the body has brown feathers. The feet have knife-like talons. Eagles have about 7,000 feathers. Adult eagles have a 7 ft (2.3 m) wingspan. The females are 30% larger than the males.
Nest and Eggs: Bald eagles build an enormous nest from twigs and leaves. The nest can be up to eight feet across and may weigh a ton! Nests are located high from the ground, either in large trees or on cliffs. Eagles may use the same enormous nest over and over again for years.
A clutch of 1 to 3 eggs eggs is laid by the female. The incubation period is from 1 to 1 1/2 months. Both males and females incubate the eggs. They both feed the hatchlings until they learn to fly (fledge).
Cougar, Puma, Mountain Lion, Panther, or Catamount
The Cougar, Puma, Mountain Lion, Panther, or Catamount (Felis concolor) is a fierce cat that lives deep in deciduous forests, rain forests, grasslands, and deserts of North America and South America. These solitary cats can purr but cannot roar. Very athletic, these cats are excellent jumpers, climbers and swimmers.
Cougars have a life span of about 8 years. There are many subspecies of cougar. Cougars are an endangered species due to loss of habitat and over-hunting by man.
Anatomy: The cougar has keen eyesight and good hearing. It has a small head, big ears, powerful jaws, long, pointed canine teeth, and sharp, retractable claws on each foot. The brown eyes have circular pupils. These powerful cats are up to 6 feet (1.8 m) long, plus a long tail that is 2-3 ft (60-90 cm) long. It weighs up to 200 pounds (90 kg). The young have a spotted coat, but become solid tan to gray-brown at six months of age.
Diet: The cougar is a carnivore (a meat-eater). It is a fast, solitary hunter that hunts both during the day and at night. It eats deer, wild hogs, sheep, moose, elk, rabbits, hares, rodents (like beavers), raccoons, some birds, and livestock. Cougars stalk their prey and then ambush it by leaping from the ground or from a tree. They kill large animals by pouncing on the back and breaking the neck. They bury large prey with leaves and twigs to hide the carcass from other animals until they are able to finish eating it.
The elk, also called the red deer or wapiti (meaning “white rump” in the Shawnee language), is a large, hoofed, noisy, and social member of the deer family.
Elk are found in open mountain forests and valleys in western North America. They have a life span of about 8 to 12 years in the wild.
Anatomy: The elk is up to about 4 to 5 feet (1.2-1.5 m) tall at the shoulder. They weigh from 325 to 1,100 pounds (147-500 kg). Males are much larger than females. Only bulls (males) have branching antlers (which are shed and re-grow each year) and a shaggy mane. The largest elk antlers are about 4 ft (1.2 m) long. Elk have hoofed, two-toed feet, long legs, thick brown fur, and a large body.
Behavior: The elk is an herbivore (a plant-eater) and a spend a lot of time browsing. Elk eat grasses, shrubs, tree leaves, and herbs. Elk are ruminants (they store partly-chewed food, and later regurgitate it and thoroughly chew it).
Classification: Kingdom Animalia (animals), Phylum Chordata, Class Mammalia, Order Artiodactyla, Suborder Ruminantia, Family Cervidae (deer, elk, moose, etc.), Subfamily Cervinae (elk, fallow deer, etc.), Genus Cervus, Species C. elaphus.
The Red Wolf is a fast-running, territorial carnivore (meat-eater). These social mammals live and hunt in small packs. The red wolf is an endangered species of wolf from the Eastern USA. Red wolves were on the verge of extinction during the early 1900’s, due to loss of habitat and hunting by farmers; these wolves may be starting to recover. Red wolves mate for life and have 2 to 6 pups each spring.
Howling: Wolves howl as a signal to other wolves, telling of the beginning and ending of a hunt, of a wolf separated from its pack, as a warning to other wolf packs, and simply for the fun of it.
Anatomy: Red Wolves have a reddish coat that varies from light brown to almost black. Smaller than the closely-related gray wolf, the red wolf has long legs, long ears, a narrow head, and strong jaws with sharp teeth, including long canine teeth which tear flesh. Adults weigh from 45 to 80 pounds (20-36 kg). They have very good eyesight, acute hearing, and a keen sense of smell.
Hunting and Diet: Wolves hunt in packs and often prey upon animals that are much larger that they are. Red wolves mostly eat white-tailed deer and raccoons, but will eat almost anything, including birds, fish, snakes, lizards, and fruit. Wolves almost never attack people. They swallow food in large chunks, barely chewing it. When they return from the hunt, wolves regurgitate some of the food for the pups.
There are many different types of spiders that live all over the Earth in practically every type of habitat. They come in colors including black, brown, white, gray, red, yellow, green, and orange. Most spiders live for about a year, but the tarantula can live for 15 years. Spiders range in size from barely visible to many inches across.
Spiders are arachnids (and not insects); they are related to scorpions and ticks. Young spiders are often cannibals (they will eat each other), and females often eat the male after mating. Spiders are carnivores (meat-eaters); most eat insects (like moths and crickets), but the larger spiders, like tarantulas, will eat many other small animals.
Webs: Spiders produce silk in abdominal glands (called spinnerets). Spiders use silk to make webs and traps (for catching prey), shelter, life lines, cocoons, and diving bells (for those spiders who hunt underwater). The tips of the spider’s legs are oily; this oil keeps them from getting trapped in their own webs. Weight for weight, spider’s silk is stronger than steel.
Anatomy: All spiders have eight legs; each leg has 2 to 3 tiny claws at the end. They have a two-part body and strong jaws (usually with poisonous fangs). They have a hard exoskeleton and not an internal skeleton.
Life Cycle: After mating with a male, the female spider produces an egg sac that can contain up to a thousand tiny spider eggs. The egg sac is made of silk, and the color varies from species to species. In some species, the female spider carries the egg sac on her spinnerets or in her jaws until the eggs hatch. In other species, the egg sac is hidden under a rock, attached to a plant stalk, or encased in a web. Tiny spiderlings (baby spiders) hatch from the eggs – they look like tiny versions of an adult spider. Some spiderlings are on their own and receive no care from their mother. Other spiders climb onto their mother’s back after hatching, where she feeds them. In some species, the mother dies when the young are ready to go off on their own, and the spiderlings eat her carcass.
Crabs are 10-legged animals that walk sideways. There are almost 5,000 different species of crabs; about 4,500 are true crabs, plus about 500 are hermit crabs (hermit crabs don’t have a very hard shell and use other animals’ old shells for protection). Most crabs live in the oceans, but many, like the robber crab, live on land.
The Biggest Crabs: The biggest crab is the Japanese Spider crab (Macrocheira kaempferi), which lives on the floor of the north Pacific Ocean; it has a 12 ft (3.7 m) leg span. The biggest land crab is the Coconut crab (Birgus latro), which lives on islands in the Pacific Ocean; it has a leg span up to 2.5 ft (75 cm).
Diet: Many crabs are omnivores (plant- and meat-eaters), others are carnivores (meat-eaters), and some are herbivores (plant-eaters).
Anatomy: Crabs are invertebrates, animals without a backbone. They have an exoskeleton (also called a carapace), an outer shell that both protects them from predators and provides support. These crustaceans have ten jointed legs, two of which have large, grasping claws (called pincers or chelipeds). They have a flattened body, two feelers (antennae), and two eyes located at the ends of stalks.
Breathing: Marine crabs breathe underwater using gills, which are located in a two cavities under the carapace. True land crabs have enlarged, modified cavities that act like lungs so that the land crabs can breathe air.
The African Elephant is the largest living land animal (larger than the Asian Elephant). These mammals have very strong social bonds and live in family groups headed by a female (called a cow). Males (called bulls) occasionally join the group. Elephants are excellent swimmers. Elephants have few natural enemies except man, and they are in danger of extinction due to loss of habitat and poaching (they are killed for their ivory tusks).
Anatomy: African elephants average about 10 feet (3 m) tall at the shoulder, weighing roughly 6 tons (5,400 kg). Males are larger than females. Both males and females have tusks (large, pointed ivory teeth). They have wrinkled, gray-brown skin that is almost hairless.
Ears: African Elephants have large ears (up to 5 feet=1.5 m long) that are shaped like the continent of Africa. The ears not only hear well, but also help the elephant lose excess heat, as hot blood flows near the surface of the skin.
Trunk: Elephants breathe through two nostrils at the end of their trunk, which is an extension of the nose. The trunk is also used to get water and food. To get water, the elephant sucks water into the trunk, then curls the trunk towards the mouth and squirts the water into it. The trunk has two prehensile (grasping) extensions at the tip, which it uses like a hand.
Diet: Elephants eat roots, grasses, leaves, fruit, and bark. They use their tusks and trunk to get food. These herbivores spend most of their time eating. Bulls can eat up to 300-600 pounds (130-260 kg) of food each day.
Classification: Kingdom Animalia (animals), Phylum Chordata (having a notochord), Class Mammalia (mammals), Subclass Eutheria (placental mammals), Order Proboscidae, Suborder Elephantoidea, Family Elephantidae (mammoths and modern elephants), Genera and species: Loxodonta Africana (African savanna elephants), Loxodonta cyclotis (African forest elephants, discovered to be a separate species in 2001).
Brachiosaurus was a huge, plant-eating dinosaur that had a giraffe-like stance. It is one of the tallest and largest dinosaurs yet found, and may have lived in Earth-shaking herds. This giant sauropod lived during the middle to late Jurassic period, about 156-145 million years ago.
Anatomy: Brachiosaurus walked on four legs and, like the other Brachiosaurids and unlike most dinosaurs, its front legs were longer than its hind legs. Brachiosaurus was about 85 feet long (26 m). It had a claw on the first toe of each front foot and claws on the first three toes of each rear foot (each foot had five toes with fleshy pads). Like other Brachiosaurids, it had chisel-like teeth, its nostrils were on the top of its head, and it had large nasal openings indicating that it may have had a good sense of smell. This plant-eater had 26 teeth on its top jaw and 26 on the bottom for a total of 52 teeth towards the front of the mouth.
Fossils and Name: Brachiosaurus was first found in the Grand River Valley, in western Colorado, USA, in 1900. This incomplete skeleton was described by paleontologist Elmer S. Riggs, who named Brachiosaurus in 1903. In 1909, Werner Janensch found many Brachiosaurus fossils in Tanzania, Africa. Many Brachiosaurus fossils have been found, in North America and Africa.
Ploughshare (Angonoka) Tortoise
The Ploughshare (Angonoka) tortoise is an endangered species of tortoise that lives in tropical grasslands and dry scrub forests of northwestern Madagascar. These tortoises are on the verge of extinction due to habitat loss and pigs (who eat the tortoise’s eggs).
Anatomy: The Angonoka tortoise has a hard, brown, highly-domed upper shell (the carapace) which is up to about 17 inches (43 cm) long. Males are larger than females.
Behavior: There is a horn-like (plow-shaped) projection on the plastron (lower shell) between the front legs. When males fight other males, they use this projection to ram and overturn their opponent.
Diet: The Angonoka tortoise is an herbivore (plant eater). It eats grasses, herbs, and a wide variety of plants.
Reproduction: The female lays 3 to 6 white, spherical eggs in each clutch (a group of eggs laid together). The eggs are laid in a shallow pit that the female digs with her hind legs. She covers the eggs with soil, then abandons them. These tortoises reach maturity at about 20 years of age.
Classification: Kingdom Animalia (animals), Phylum Chordata (animals with a notochord), Class Reptilia (reptiles), Order Chelonia (turtles, tortoises, and terrapins), Suborder Cryptodira, Family Testudinidae (many land tortoises), Genus Geochelone, Species yniphora.
Cats are small, tame, furry mammals that are often kept as pets and farm animals. There are over 30 different breeds of tame cats, with different body shapes and sizes, coloring, fur length, eye color, tail length, voice, and temperament. House cats do not enjoy swimming. Cats were domesticated over 7,000 years ago.
Diet: Even tame cats are fast, effective hunters. They are carnivores (meat-eaters). Cats will kill and eat small mammals, birds, fish, frogs, lizards, and snakes. On farms, cats help reduce the vermin population (rats, mice, and other small, destructive animals). Cats use their acute sight and hearing to catch prey. They swallow large bites of meat without chewing it. Cats are primarily nocturnal (most active at night). They have very good night vision.
Anatomy: Cats are graceful animals that have a rounded face. They have a sand-papery tongue and needle-like teeth. Their skeleton is extremely flexible.
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