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  • Ambroise Pare’nin ingilizce hayatı

    Ambroise Pare’nin ingilizce hayatı

    Ambroise Pare

    Toby Davis

    Ambroise Pare
    Website: wikipedia.org
    Weblink:  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ambroise_Pare

    Ambroise Pare was born in 1510 in a village near the city of Laval in the province of Maine. Pare is one of the most important people when it comes to surgery in the sixteenth century. In sixteenth century France surgery was not considered in as high of a regard as we think of surgery today. Pare changed all of this through his dedication to his craft and his extensive search for new and innovative surgical procedures. In Pares lifetime he was the surgeon for four different kings of France.

    In the sixteenth century there were “three hierarchies of the Faculty of Physicians, the surgeons belonging to the College of St. Cosmas, or St Come, and the barber-surgeons” (Pare). The barber-surgeons were the class of surgeons who actually performed the different types of surgery. The surgeons who belonged to the college of St. Cosmas thought that they were somehow superior to the barber-surgeons. Pare was a surgeon of the barber-surgeon class. It was because of his classification as a barber-surgeon that Pare was able to advance his knowledge in many different surgical practices. He was not limited by the physicians who presided over the surgeons from the College of St. Cosmas. For it was here that Pare established himself as one of the most influential people and one of the greatest surgeons throughout history. Pare was appointed the house surgeon for the only public hospital in Paris, the Hotel-Dieu (see link: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ambroise_Pare ). He was the house surgeon here for three years and it is stated that this is where he gained the most knowledge and the most beneficial knowledge throughout his career.

    Ambroise Pare was truly an innovator in the field of surgery. He focused his life on advancing surgery and discovering new and better ways of practicing different surgical procedures. He focused his work on treating wounds especially wounds that were caused by guns. He also made advancements in surgeries of hernias, amputations, fractures, dislocations, and cataracts to name a few. Let’s take a look into what Ambroise Pare has to say about surgery when it comes to dealing with a patient who is in need of an amputation.

    “You shall certainly know that a Gangreene is turned into a Sphacell, or mortification, and that the part is wholly and thoroughly dead, if it look a black color, and be colder than stone to your touch, the cause of which coldness is not occasioned by the frigid air of the night; if there is a great softness of the part, so that if you press it with your finger it rises not again, but retains the print of the impression” (Pare). Pare is describing in his writings what a dead or gangrenous limb would look like to a surgeon. This is one of the major causes of amputation, and was very common in the era of Pare. Following the diagnosis that an amputation is needed the surgeon must decide where to actually amputate the infected limb. Pare states that the “wisdom and judgment” is of the utmost importance. Pare found that in order to amputate a limb successfully one must get all of the dead tissue out in the amputation.

    As for the actual surgical procedure of the amputation Pare starts by ting up the muscles along with the skin of the limb towards the good part of the limb. Pare says that this aids in the closing up of the wound after the amputation is complete, also that it stops the blood from flowing to the limb, and last that it “much dulls the sense of the part by stupefying it” (Pare). Once this is done Pare cuts the flesh to the bone. Once he had reached the bone there was a portion of muscle that must be separated from the bone before cutting of the bone can take place. After this has been taken care of Pare sawed through the bone with some sort of saw. Since the saw would make the bone rough Pare would have to smooth out the part of the bone that the saw had made rough from the dismembering.

    Now that Pare had the limb removed from the body, he would have to contend with the bleeding that ensued. Pare advised to let the limb bleed a little bit so that “the rest of the part may afterwards be less obnoxious to inflammation and other symptoms” (Pare). Pare advised on the use of a Crowes beak to clamp down the artery and the vein in order to stop the bleeding completely. After the bleeding had stopped the vessels were to be sutured.

    Now the only thing that we have left is to close the wound around where the amputation took place. It is here that Pare’s tying up of the skin and of the muscles comes into play. When the skin is let loose it forms a natural hood over the wound. Now Pare takes the skin and encloses the wound with sutures.

    It is important to see that Pare was far more advanced in his surgical procedures than most of the surgeons of the day. Amputation is performed in much of the same way in modern surgical procedures. Also Pare did not believe in the cauterization of wounds. This is unlike most of the physicians of the time, including Pare’s mentors.

    The most important thing to note in my opinion is that most of the credit should be given to the patient in these amputation procedures. Anesthesia was not a common practive in the times of Pare.  It was a relatively new practice that needed much work in order to perfect it.  Most of the timt these surgical procedures were done without the use of anesthesia.

    Pare, Ambroise. The Apologie and Treatise. Edited by Geoffrey Keynes. The University of Chicago Press. 1952.

    Ambroise Pare. Wikipedia.org. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ambroise_Pare. November 5, 2006. Accessed on November 14, 2006.