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    sokratesin (Socrates ) ingilizce hayatı

    Socrates (469 – 399 BC)

    Background, Beliefs and Teachings

    Socrates was born in Athens. He was the son of poor parents. His father was a sculptor and his mother was a midwife. Socrates was a stone cutter by trade, even though there is little evidence that he did much to make a living. However, he did have enough money to own a suit of armor when he was a hoplite in the Athenian military. He was married and had three (3) sons. He fought in the Peloponnesian War, as a soldier in the Athenian army. After he retired from the army he devoted his time to what he called “divine command”. Throughout his life he claimed to hear voices which he interpreted as signs from the gods. He spent much of his time and energy in the pursuit of wisdom. He went about this by engaging in conversation with all sorts of men and women. They would discuss a wide range of subjects such as love, politics, war, friendship, poetry, religion, science, government and moral issues. It appears that Socrates spent much of his adult life in the agora (or the marketplace) conversing mainly about ethical and moral issues.

    Socrates rejected the popular conceptions of the Greek gods and their relation to human beings. He believed that a divine providence had to do with the creation of the world. Furthermore, he thought that the purpose toward which this divine providence was directed was the achievement of the good life by human beings. He believed that man was more than just a physical organism; he felt that man’s body was a dwelling place of the soul and what happened to the soul was more important than what happened to the body. He made this statement that expresses his moral philosophy: “Virtue is knowledge.” He believed that the chief cause of the evil that men do was ignorance concerning the good life. He believed that through the proper development of the mind in its pursuit of truth, beauty and goodness that the goal and purpose of human life can be achieved. He regarded popular opinion as ignorant. He was very critical of the democratic form of government. He felt that people who are called upon to govern the state ought to possess both intellectual and moral qualifications.

    Socrates had a tendency to point out the shortcomings of certain officials who were, according to him, unprepared for their duties. He usually received harsh resentment from the officials he had offended. This was the case when Socrates pointed out the shortcomings in Meletus, a member of the governing council. In 399 B.C, Meletus and his fellow aristocrats, Anytus and Lycan, launched accusations at him. They accused him of being a menace to society. They said that he was corrupting the minds of the young and that he rejected the gods of Athens. Meletus also accused Socrates of being an atheist and said that his teachings would eventually bring about the collapse of public morality. At the trial, Socrates defended himself and his manner of living and presented sufficient evidence to show that the accusations brought against him were without adequate foundations. However, when the jury voted, the majority voted against him. Socrates was sentenced to death, by a poisonous plant extract known as hemlock.

    According to Plato Socrates’ last words were: “The hour of departure has arrived, and we go our ways – I to die, and you to live. Which is better God only knows.”

    Students whom he taught and inspired

    There are no written records of Socrates’ work. However, through his students who later turned into his peers, we have some works related to him. Aristophanes and Xenophon wrote about him. However, we receive the most information from the works of Plato. Socrates was the chief character in many of his most famous dialogues. Plato, Aristophanes, Xenophon, Euclid, Alcibiades, and many others were people who were inspired by Socrates.

    A system of morality which is based on relative emotional values is a mere illusion, a thoroughly vulgar conception which has nothing sound in it and nothing true.
    Socrates

    All men’s souls are immortal, but the souls of the righteous are immortal and divine.
    Socrates

    An honest man is always a child.
    Socrates

    As for me, all I know is that I know nothing.
    Socrates

    As to marriage or celibacy, let a man take which course he will, he will be sure to repent.
    Socrates

    Be as you wish to seem.
    Socrates

    Be slow to fall into friendship; but when thou art in, continue firm and constant.
    Socrates

    Beauty is a short-lived tyranny.
    Socrates

    Beauty is the bait which with delight allures man to enlarge his kind.
    Socrates

    Beware the barrenness of a busy life.
    Socrates

    By all means, marry. If you get a good wife, you’ll become happy; if you get a bad one, you’ll become a philosopher.
    Socrates

    Death may be the greatest of all human blessings.
    Socrates

    Employ your time in improving yourself by other men’s writings, so that you shall gain easily what others have labored hard for.
    Socrates

    False words are not only evil in themselves, but they infect the soul with evil.
    Socrates

    From the deepest desires often come the deadliest hate.
    Socrates

    He is a man of courage who does not run away, but remains at his post and fights against the enemy.
    Socrates

    He is richest who is content with the least, for content is the wealth of nature.
    Socrates

    I am the wisest man alive, for I know one thing, and that is that I know nothing.
    Socrates

    I decided that it was not wisdom that enabled poets to write their poetry, but a kind of instinct or inspiration, such as you find in seers and prophets who deliver all their sublime messages without knowing in the least what they mean.
    Socrates

    I know nothing except the fact of my ignorance.
    Socrates

    I know that I am intelligent, because I know that I know nothing.
    Socrates

    I only wish that ordinary people had an unlimited capacity for doing harm; then they might have an unlimited power for doing good.
    Socrates

    I was really too honest a man to be a politician and live.
    Socrates

    If a man is proud of his wealth, he should not be praised until it is known how he employs it.
    Socrates

    If all misfortunes were laid in one common heap whence everyone must take an equal portion, most people would be contented to take their own and depart.
    Socrates

    It is not living that matters, but living rightly.
    Socrates

    Let him that would move the world first move himself.
    Socrates

    My advice to you is get married: if you find a good wife you’ll be happy; if not, you’ll become a philosopher.
    Socrates

    Not life, but good life, is to be chiefly valued.
    Socrates

    Once made equal to man, woman becomes his superior.
    Socrates

    One who is injured ought not to return the injury, for on no account can it be right to do an injustice; and it is not right to return an injury, or to do evil to any man, however much we have suffered from him.
    Socrates

    Ordinary people seem not to realize that those who really apply themselves in the right way to philosophy are directly and of their own accord preparing themselves for dying and death.
    Socrates

    Our prayers should be for blessings in general, for God knows best what is good for us.
    Socrates

    The end of life is to be like God, and the soul following God will be like Him.
    Socrates

    The greatest way to live with honor in this world is to be what we pretend to be.
    Socrates

    The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing.
    Socrates

    The poets are only the interpreters of the Gods.
    Socrates

    The unexamined life is not worth living.
    Socrates

    The way to gain a good reputation is to endeavor to be what you desire to appear.
    Socrates

    To know, is to know that you know nothing. That is the meaning of true knowledge.
    Socrates

    True knowledge exists in knowing that you know nothing.
    Socrates

    True wisdom comes to each of us when we realize how little we understand about life, ourselves, and the world around us.
    Socrates

    Where there is reverence there is fear, but there is not reverence everywhere that there is fear, because fear presumably has a wider extension than reverence.
    Socrates

    Wisdom begins in wonder.
    Socrates

    Worthless people live only to eat and drink; people of worth eat and drink only to live.
    Socrates

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